The situation in Lebanon after the protracted civil war
stabilized in 1991; most semi-military associations
representing various interest groups were demobilized and
their equipment was handed over to the government forces. A
friendship agreement was signed between Syria and Lebanon,
meaning that Syria indirectly controls parts of Lebanon's
foreign and defense policy. In the late summer of 2006, a
regular 34-day long war broke out between Hizbullah
pro-Iranian forces and Israel, led by Hizbullah with
indirect rocket weapons fired into Israeli territory. Israel
responded with all-round assemblies including ground combat
allies to the Litany River. The UN set up Unifil II as a
complement to Unifil I(1978); a total of about 10,000 men
from 20 countries along the entire border with Israel.
Sweden contributed a warship.
The government troops include (2006) 160,000 men with the
support of a general military duty which was reintroduced
and organized into 11 brigades, 32 patrol vessels and some
older fighter aircraft etc. Normally, the scope is estimated
to be 72,000 men. The material is of mixed Soviet and
increasingly Western origin. Police forces amount to about
13,000 men. Defense costs fell from 9.0% to 4.4% of GDP in
1985-96, to 3.1% of GDP in 2006. The Hizbullah movement has
2,000 people at its disposal. To see related acronyms about this country, please check ABBREVIATIONFINDER where you can see that LBN stands for Lebanon.
The Sabra and Chatila massacres
On August 23, Congress appointed President Sarkis'
successor, Bashir Gemayel, the only candidate and backed by
Israel. But the Maronite leader never got to the post. On
September 14, he was killed by an attack that destroyed the
Falangist headquarters in East Beirut. No one claimed
responsibility for the attack. The next day, the city was
occupied by Israeli forces. On September 16, the so-called
Lebanese Forces led by Elie Hbaiqa entered the Israeli
refugee camps, Sabra and Chatila, where they murdered
hundreds of unarmed civilians - without making any
difference to the elderly, women or children. A subsequent
investigation revealed with 100% certainty the Israeli
military commanders' responsibility for the massacre. They
had encouraged the right-wing militia they had under their
control. Chief of the massacre was Israeli Defense Minister
While the Israeli military continued its occupation of
Lebanon, a new president, Amin Gemayel, was deployed at the
head of the country's government. He was the big brother of
the murdered Bashir and elected under the same
circumstances. The election of the new president did not
reduce the contradictions between the various groups living
together in Lebanon. The leading trend within the ruling
Falangist Party sought to replace the 1943 National Alliance
with a new political formula based on a division of the
country into districts and a central federal government.
However, this formula posed the danger of an atomization of
Lebanese politics and a division into religious ministries.
Administrative (not political) decentralization was viewed
with interest by the Sunni and Shiite leaders, while the
Drusian community advocated greater autonomy.
In June 83, an agreement was concluded between Israel and
Lebanon, ending the state of war between the two countries.
Israel undertook to leave Lebanese territory as part of the
withdrawal of all foreign forces from the country. At the
same time, Lebanon pledged not to house armed groups from
organizations intended to "carry out raids into the
territory of the other party."
In July 1984, the Lebanese currency suddenly dropped
drastically, having otherwise retained its value since the
start of the war in 75. This triggered an unprecedented wave
of inflation. The crisis was further exacerbated by the
recession in the Gulf states. It was the shock of Beirut.
The country had to take note of a $ 1.5 billion balance of
payments deficit in $ 84.
The Israeli army formally withdrew from Lebanon in 85,
but before then the occupying forces had ensured that
Christian militias had expelled the Muslim population from
the southern part of the country, thus securing a friendly -
Christian - population in it. 10 km security zone, which
Israel forced into the southernmost part of Lebanon.
In September 88, the pro-Israeli Maronite general, Michel
Aoun, took office, which had become vacant after Amín
Gemayel was deposed in a palace coup. From this point on,
the country was led by two rival governments. The one Aouns.
The second Muslim headed by Prime Minister Selim Al-Hoss.
In October 89, for the first time since parliament,
independence met outside the country on the initiative of
the Arab League's commission - Saudi Arabia, Algeria and
Morocco - acting as mediators between the warring parties.
The Ta'if meeting was about the formulation of a final peace
plan for the country, an alternative to the political
formula that had been in effect since 43 and the nomination
of the next president of the republic. Namely, according to
the Lebanese constitution, the president is elected
indirectly - by parliament.
On October 12, the Christian and Muslim parliamentarians
announced an agreement for national reconciliation that
would have a greater impact on the Muslim population and the
withdrawal of Syrian troops from the country. However,
General Aoun rejected the agreement and characterized it as
a "Syrian trap". On November 5, the Christian Maronite, René
Moawad, was unanimously elected by parliament for president.
He was a proponent of opening to the Arab world, but only 17
days after his appointment he was killed by a car bomb.
On November 24, Elías Hrawi was appointed President of
the Lebanese Parliament, which met in Zahle, located in
Syrian-controlled territory. He too was a Christian
Maronite. Once again, General Aoun rejected the election.
This time with reference to the fact that the president had
been elected in an area beyond the control of the Christian