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Egypt

Defense

The defense, which is based on selective military service, comprises (2006) approximately 470,000 men, of which 270,000 military service members. The service period is three years. Through the modernization and self-production of weapons, the efficiency of the Egyptian defense has increased; inter alia license production of American stock has contributed to the proportion of modern defense equipment being large. Most of the older Soviet stock has been discontinued. Egypt seeks to become the main supplier of defense equipment to the Arab world. To see related acronyms about this country, please check ABBREVIATIONFINDER where you can see that EGY stands for Egypt.

The defense is organized in an army of 340,000 men, 700,000 men fully staffed, with twelve divisions and twelve independent brigades with, among other things. more than 3,800 tanks, of which 2,250 are American. The Navy has 8,500 men, 32,500 men fully staffed, with four submarines, eleven larger battleships and 45 patrol boats as well as a naval aircraft with 27 armed helicopters. The Air Force has 20,000 men, 50,000 men fully manned, with about 570 fighter aircraft, including Mirage M-2000 and F-16 C and older MiG 21 from the former Soviet Union, as well as 130 (attack) helicopters.

The semi-military resources of 395,000 men are mainly security forces. In Egypt, seven different operative armed organizations have been operating since the 1970s. Defense costs have decreased from 7.2 to 2.7% of GDP in 1985-2006. A military peacekeeping force of 1,670 men from eleven states has been stationed in Egypt (Sinai) since 1979. Egypt participates in peacekeeping operations in Sudan (UNMIS) and has observers in Burundi, Congo (Kinshasa), Georgia, Liberia and Western Sahara.

Military of Egypt

1991 Increased fundamentalist business

From 1991, the attacks came from the fundamentalist Islamic movements who wanted to transform Egypt into a theocratic state. In the same year, the state of emergency, which had been in force for 10 years, was extended for a further three. In the period from February 92 to August 93, the attacks of the fundamentalists cost. authorities statistics 175 life. The state responded again by arresting thousands of sympathizers and members of the fundamentalist groups. Several cities were conquered - especially in March 93. The year before, an anti-terrorism law had been passed and in June and July 93 15 were executed under this new law.

The social and economic crisis in the country was further aggravated when an earthquake on October 12, 1992 cost 350 lives and approx. 4,000 wounded. The inability of the authorities to help those in need led to popular protests.

The government continued its liberalization of the economy. foreign banks operating in the country. In March 93, the IMF left a $ 3 billion debt to support the government in its privatization policy. In October, after being re-elected as president, Mubarak continued his tough policy toward the Islamists. Nevertheless, the attacks against foreign tourists increased in 1994.

In April, the bar association protested the mysterious death at a local police station by a defense lawyer for Islamists. After a week of demonstrations, the protests culminated in a general strike. The events revealed the fundamentalists' strong influence in the legal profession. In October, the number of deaths reached 460 since the fundamentalists in February 92 launched their uprising against the Mubarak government.

In May, the president set up a committee tasked with organizing the political dialogue between the government and the opposition, excluding the Communists, the Muslim Brotherhood and the Coptic minority representatives from the dialogue. At the same time, relations with the IMF became more tense as the Monetary Fund criticized the government for lethargy in opening the economy.

Egypt's foreign policy expanded its influence on the Middle East peace process and the political relations between the Arab countries. In December, a meeting was held in Alexandria, attended by representatives from Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Syria, and in February 95, Cairo hosted a summit between the leaders from Egypt, Jordan, Israel and Palestine.

Through 1996, Mubarak was unable to find a solution to the increasing clashes with Islamic fundamentalists. In January, Interior Minister al-Alfi had convened a meeting of Arab interior ministers in the Arab world to develop a coordinated effort against the Islamist groups that resorted to violent means.

In November, the ruling party won the parliamentary election. It was conducted in a climate of violence, giving 416 of the 444 seats to the ruling party, triggering allegations of electoral fraud. By January 96, Mubarak had appointed Kamal al-Ganzouri as prime minister to replace Atef Sedki. In July, the Ministry of Health banned the circumcision of women, which in some traditional parts of the country was widespread.

The attacks by the armed Islamic groups continued through 96 and 97, as did the government's persecution of these groups. Not only the armed, but also groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood that criticized the use of violence. In November 97, a command of 17 fundamentalists killed 60 foreign tourists in Luxor. The intention was, as in the previous ones, to limit the flow of tourists and thus the increasing revenue of the state from this sector, which annually raised the country $ 3 billion.

 

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